: is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups. These relationships are discovered through an evaluation of observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The biological term is also used in literature.
Folk tales, their themes, topics and even specific sentences, are analysed whether they have a relationship to other tales in other regions and cultures. Scientists like Jamshid Tehrani of British Durham
University or Sara Garca de Silva
from Universidade Nova in Lisboa try to identify where tales come from and how old they are, e.g. The Phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood